Naivasha Agreement: The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of Sudan
The Naivasha Agreement, also known as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), is a political agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War in 2005. The agreement was signed on January 9, 2005, in Naivasha, Kenya, after two years of negotiations between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People`s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A).
The Second Sudanese Civil War began in 1983, and it is estimated that it resulted in the death of two million people and the displacement of four million more. The war was waged between the Government of Sudan, which is dominated by Arab Muslims, and non-Arab Muslims in the south and west of the country.
The Naivasha Agreement was a historic milestone in the history of Sudan as it addressed the root causes of the conflict, which were largely over issues of power-sharing, wealth-sharing, and governance. The agreement provided for a six-year interim period, during which a government of national unity would be established, and the SPLM/A would be incorporated into the central government.
Under the Naivasha Agreement, the southern region of Sudan was granted autonomy, and the right to hold a referendum in six years` time, which would determine whether the south should secede from Sudan or remain part of a united Sudan. The agreement also provided for a power-sharing arrangement between the north and south, with the presidency rotating between the two regions.
Moreover, the agreement stipulated that oil revenues would be shared equally between the north and south, and that the southern region would receive a share of the national budget proportional to its population. In addition, the agreement provided for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants, and the resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees.
The Naivasha Agreement was not perfect, and it faced several challenges, including a lack of political will on the part of the Sudanese government to implement key provisions of the agreement. However, it was a significant step towards resolving the longstanding conflict in Sudan, and it set an example for other African countries facing similar challenges.
In conclusion, the Naivasha Agreement was a comprehensive peace agreement that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War and addressed the root causes of the conflict. The agreement provided for a power-sharing arrangement, autonomy for the southern region, and an equal sharing of oil revenues. It also provided for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants, and the resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees. While the agreement faced challenges, it was a significant step towards resolving the conflict in Sudan and serves as an example for other countries facing similar challenges.